Bibliometrics (from Greek biblion-book, metreo-measure) ie. scientific direction, was coined as a term by English scientist A.Pritchard in 1967. Bibliometrics is to study the application of  mathematics and statistical methods to books, periodical press and other media of communication, informative materials. Studying objects in bibliometric researches are classified publications on different signs-author, magazine, subject matter, countries etc.

It should be noted that, bibliometrics has a deeper history. Its roots reach to XVIII-XIX century.  For the first time, publishers and bibliographers conducted the statistics of bibliographic descriptions of book trade catolog. It can be noted  the literary researches, resumes of   K. X. Freminakh in in Germany, A. Shtorkh in Russia and F. Adelung.

In the XIX century P.I.Keplen, K.Bekker, L.I.Pavlenkov and N.M.Lisovski had attempted to substantiate considerations about the development of science objectively and use of methods of important  data collecting for it  in their works.

E. Garfild has significant contributions to the organizaton of methodology of bibliometric analysis. N.M.Lisoviski used the term of “statistical bibliography”  and applied in his works as a practice in Russia I Bibliography congress in 1985.

As one of the first bibliometric researches can be considered the statistic analysis on comperative anatomy conducted by F.Koul and N. Ilsin in 1917.  As a result of this research, during 1550-1860,  it was defined the distribution of  the literature about anotomy on countries unequally, retail.  E. Khalm, the former librarian of British Patent Department used this term as a title in his  two private lectures about bibliography in Cambridge University in 1923 and conducted statistical analysis of history of science. He has offered to replace  the term “Statistical bibliography” that used in literature consistently,  periodically since 1923 with the term “bibliometrics”. In 1923, R. Faykhorm supported the usage of this term and according to the law of Bradford-Chipf-Mandelbort he used as a title of resume. Bibliometric approaches on  studying the processes of dissemination of information are  associated with the names C.K. Chipf (“Zipf’s distribution”), S.C. Bradford ( “Bradford’s Dispersion law”), V.K.Bruks (“exact mathematical formula of “Dispersion law”), A.Lotk ( “Inverse square law” that described the distribution depending on the quantity of articles which published by the authors themselve). The essence of these laws are that, the founders of them laid the foundation of systematic research of art current and played an important role in the formation of bibliometrics. III bibliometric research was conducted in 1927. In these researches, the citations given to the articles  are counted, analyzed in the magazines about chemistry, magazine titles were seperated due to the amount of received citations and the list of magazines were compiled that were  important in education on chemistry. It is considered as the first research which is based on the calculation and analysis of citations, also posseses practical recomendation. S. Bradford analyzed the magazine articles on applied geophysics in the years of 1934 and 1953. This research is currenly called as “Bradford law” and became major for next bibliometric researches.

For many years, pioneers of bibliometric caused to the formation of scientific direction. So, A.Pritchard’s bibliography about bibliometrics (1969) covered 700 sources.  Bibliography about the analysis of citations that was compiled by the Institution of Philadelphia Scientific Information (1976) covered articles more than 500. The information which obtained by the help of bibliometric researches is  applied in different assessment  processes effectivel, allows to appoint the development or regression of this or other scientific direction. At the moment, their applied opportunities are wide. It is possible to conduct enough operative analysis and get exact quantitative indicators by using from different information resources. Future developtment perspectives of bibliometrics are doubtless.

Modern bibliometric researches are conducted with the help of information-bibliometric electronic resourses. These are different data bases-bibligraphic, factographic or abstract and related services to them. Currently, bibliometric researches are carried out in two ways: purposeful and sustainable.

These researches methods are used in bibliometric: the analysis of citations, the analysis of abstract magazines, the analysis of quanitative properties of initial documents, quanitative analyses of different authors and their citations, quanitative analysis of different states and countries, also publications of scientists of different scientific collectives, theoretical questions, and other questions related to the distribution of scientific documents.

Bibliometrics is the subject that engages with the studying of documents with the help of formed methods in order to receiving of information about the development, regularities and structure, efficiency of researching fields on the base of analysis of quanitative indicators of initial and recurrent information resources.

Bibliometrics is important not only for the development of  science study as all kinds of statistics but also for the help to the work of management of science, specially is important for planning or forecasting of scientific researches, making scientific policy by state.

Today there is not exact explanation of bibliometric conception. Although the list of  theoretical work came into being, the term remains uncertainly and it needs to be changed.

Bibliometrics reflects the analysis of bibliographic information of publications.In modern time, the majority of different definations of bibliometrics have  led to usage  and implementation  of mathematical models and method for the whole aspects of communication. To the sections of bibliometrics include statistics of analysis of operations, analysis of citations, information theory and theoretical aspects of information search.

In recent years, new research directions that close to informetrics,cybermetrics , scientometrics, webometrics studying  the quantitative regularities of document flow have emerged.

Bibliometrics is an scientific subject that deals with the studying of documents with the help of formed methods  in order to collectiong of information about the activity of scientific fields and forecasting of their development  on the base of initial and II type, statistical analysis of  recycling information sources.

The formation of new scientific direction-bibliometrics coincides with XX century and related to the studying of quanitative indicators of document flow. In addition, although the deficiency of  the duration of the development cycle, numerous researches, the discussion of theoretical questions about  bibliometrics remainsas an interesting work. Bibliometrics possesses to the whole  opportunities to be one of the leading scientific sujects and is bound for  development  and improvement succesfully.

Сведения об авторе

  1. ГАДЖИЕВА Айгюн Захид кызы, заведующая научно – исследовательским отделом библиотековедения Азербайджанской Национальной Библиотеки, докторант Института Рукописей им. М.Физули НАНА (Азербайджан)

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23.04.2016, 493 просмотра.